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A founder member of Heritage Action, Graham writes:

As you’re reading this, I think it’s safe to assume that you have a healthy interest in prehistoric monuments, so it’s unlikely that you’ve NOT heard of the magnificent cinematic masterpiece that is “Standing With Stones”.

This wonderful film was created in its entirety by Rupert Soskin and Michael Bott, who funded, wrote, presented and produced the whole thing by themselves. It truly is a labour of love, and well worth a watch if you haven’t already, and a re-watch if you have.

The film was followed up a few months later with a book entitled “Standing with Stones: A Photographic Journey Through Megalithic Britain and Ireland”, which – again – is a must-have item for any fellow stonehuggers out there.

Since the release of the film, many of us have hoped for a follow-up, and various discussions have taken place over the years. Michael and Rupert have sporadically hosted Facebook chats on the subject, and now 10 years after the release of the original film the two of them have got together to create a regular Standing With Stones podcast! Followers are encouraged to show their gratitude with regular donations via the Patreon platform, which will help to fund the shows but also eventually hopefully fund a second film!

A Standing With Stones Community on Facebook has been created and contains regular updates and “open house” live chats along with the podcasts and snippets of previously unseen and brand new film footage. Contributors receive priority access to certain content as an incentive to donate.

I can highly recommend getting involved with this group. Michael and Rupert are absolutely delightful and extremely knowledgeable on the subject. The discussions are very easy going, free-flowing and welcome interaction from viewers whose interjections are usually responded to during the chat.

I cannot speak highly enough of these two wonderful gentlemen and their dedication to the subject. The megalithic world benefits greatly from their efforts.

Something a bit different for the Heritage Journal today: a music review!

Our attention has been drawn to a recent album by Greg Hancock, an archaeologist turned musician.

 

His guitar playing has developed from roots in the new folk styles of the 70s and 80s, with influences from players like Nic Jones, Martin Simpson and Joni Mitchell, to become a unique, intricate style through which many different moods can be expressed, and different genres explored.

His songs deal with a wide range of topics – from love-gone-wrong and personal emotions to topical issues and current affairs but all share an unusual, slightly skewed view of the world and everything in it.

His album, entitled “A303” has received good reviews from people much better qualified to comment on the musical content than we are:

  • Fatea“Greg has a wonderful lightness of touch and tone, which is complimented perfectly by the talented group of musicians that support him throughout the album. Lyrics, vocals and melodies are all near perfect, and the intricate guitar work is at times truly breath-taking.”
  • Folkwords“‘A303’ is a collection of narrative-driven songs to make you think. Hancock moves through sadness and sorrow, sarcasm and sensitivity, reminiscences and recollections with his stories, each one a tiny cameo that takes the listener into his world.”
  • Blues and Roots Radio“A303 is the finest folk album I have had the pleasure of listening to in years, and it was impossible to write a review impartially because the impact of it, causing smiles, tears and happy memories to come flooding back”

The lyrics of the title track will be particularly evocative to readers of the Heritage Journal, recalling Greg’s days as an archaeologist working in the trenches:

Deep up to my elbows in Victorian shit
Trying to remember why I got involved with this
Then finding my first Roman coin at the bottom of a pit
And getting into trouble for going home with it
Weeks and months spent learning
How to tell the tell-tale signs
Of hand-flaked flint from Neolithic mines
And hours spent marking out medieval boundary lines

When you’re driving on the A303
I wonder if you’ve ever had the same thoughts as me
Fascination mixed with irony
Taking pictures with my mobile phone
Of piles of ancient stone

Greg can be seen performing live on his current Spring Tour throughout March in the south of England, with outlying gigs in Milton Keynes, London and Epping, and the full album is available for streaming or purchase from his web site.

The wheel continues to turn, a major festival has once again passed, and all too soon it’s time for another review (and major link-fest!) of the previous twelve months here on the Heritage Journal.

happy-new-year-2017

September
We reported upon the physical completion (for now) of a survey of Verulamium in Hertfordshire, a considerable volunteer project which will provide opportunities for interpretation of the results for some time to come. The project was the subject of a talk at a conference in November, which sadly we were unable to attend.

It came as a bit of a surprise to find that our Artefact Erosion Counter had been included in an exam question a couple of years ago, but we took it as a compliment and provided our own answer to the question set.

In our campaign for the truth about the Stonehenge Tunnel, we decided to let the cat out of the bag at last and revealed several yowling moggies, a series that is still ongoing as the spin and outright lies continue in the media. And in other campaigns, we revealed plans for a European assault on our archaeological record, pointed out more inconsistencies in Shropshire’s plans for Oswestry and further inconsistencies in interpretation in Wales.

October
The month began by uncovering a potential error in the Artefact Erosion Counter and identified a possible share gap in statistics provided by the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS).

But the month was dominated by our Stonehenge Tunnel campaign, with a whole host of cats being released once again from our bag. We responded to Mike Pitts’ criticism of our concerns, and pointed out a major omission at the National Trust AGM.

November
We started the month with a plea to the public to look out for, and report damage to ancient monuments. We heard that a PAS debate in Ireland was cancelled due to ‘bullying’ of British speakers, whilst one of our members attended and reported on the PAS Conference in London.

Another conference we did not attend was that for the 30th Anniversary of the World Heritage Site at Stonehenge, but the exposés just kept on coming.

December
Simon Thurley inadvertently strengthened our argument against the tunnel at the start of this month, whilst a couple more moggies made a break for freedom. And just before Christmas, a cynical attempt to manipulate local opinion in favour of the tunnel was uncovered.

Once again, we highlighted the shortcomings of the PAS, and bemoaned the lack of investment in the heritage sector generally.


That concludes our look back at 2016, but as always, we hope to bring much more of the same in the coming year. And of course our archives are always free to explore via the link on the left hand menu.

If you have a story which you feel we should feature, particularly if it describes a threat to our prehistoric archaeological heritage, then we’d love to hear from you in 2017! We can provide full attribution, or if you’d prefer, complete anonymity as a ‘Friend of the Journal’. Equally, if you’ve been out and about and would like to describe your trip to see the wonders within our shores the we’d like to hear about that too. After all, don’t forget it’s your Journal.

We continue our brief review of the previous twelve months here on the Heritage Journal, revisiting the summer months.

happy-new-year-2017

May
As the seasons change, it seems to affect people in bad ways. We reported this month on a couple of instances of heritage destruction, in Ireland and at Stanton Moor. But we managed to get out and about ourselves, reporting on ‘restoration’ at West Kennet, the removal of the London Stone, and a wonderful guided walk in Cornwall.

At Stonehenge, we suggested that maybe it’s time to consider a cap on visitor numbers, and began pointing out some hard truths about the effect of the proposed tunnel, an ongoing campaign that would take up most of the second half of the year.

June
Stonehenge was again a major focus this month, starting with the potential for the tunnel to increase wildlife casualties and the lack of outreach. We asked who stole the Solstice? and a guest post from Jim Rayner gave some suggestions on how, where and when the solstice should be celebrated and we looked at how the various agencies are all condoning damage to Stonehenge.

Out and about, Dr Sandy Gerrard reported on a visit to the Tair Carn Isaf cairn cemetery in Carmarthenshire.

July
Ah, the ‘Brexit’ vote result. We gave two opposing views on what it could mean for the British archaeological resource. We highlighted some of the (prehistoric) events in this year’s Festival of Archaeology and reminded our readers of the Day of Archaeology that follows the festival. We pointed out how the British Museum had insulted every archaeologist and heritage professional, and then acknowledged their error.

There was some minor good news about the Solstice at Stonehenge and we deflated some of the pro-tunnel lobby’s claims.

August
Something about the sun brings out the critic in us! We began the month with a critical look at Cadw’s new web site, and ended by enjoying Tehmina Goskar’s critique of a visit to Tintagel.

In between, we held our annual Megameet at Avebury, which gave us cause for more criticism of the National Trust, and not just at Avebury. We uncovered one of their ‘dirty trick‘ marketing ploys, looked back 11 years to when Stonehenge was saved from the bulldozers and pointed out some more inconsistencies in the various agencies’ stance on the tunnel.

On our travels, we visited the next section of the Neolithic M1 in our ongoing series.

Tomorrow we’ll conclude our brief look back at some of the stories from 2016 in the final part of our annual review! But don’t forget that our archives contain our articles going back several years. These can be explored for any given month via the dropdown link on the left hand menu, or a search keyword facility is available.

The wheel continues to turn, a major festival has once again passed, and all too soon it’s time for another review of the previous twelve months here on the Heritage Journal.

happy-new-year-2017

Well, what a year! There has been an absolute dearth of good news as far as heritage protection is concerned, and sadly the future doesn’t look too bright either from where we’re standing at the moment. On a personal note, events transpired to restrict my own visits out to sites around the country and so the customary ‘Bank Holiday Drive’ posts were largely omitted this year. If necessary, they’ll return, albeit possibly in ‘virtual’ form, in the new year.

January

We began the year full of Wishes, Hopes and Dreams,  but looking back it seems that that is all they were. We instigated a monthly picture quiz this year, and pointed out what would be become a major campaign throughout the year – the lies that lie behind the ‘Stonehenge Short Tunnel’. In fact, we made a plea in our #blogarch article for archaeologists to come forward and speak out against the tunnel. We said:

It would be great if 2016 saw a rising tide of archaeologists, lawyers and others saying hang on a moment, have you actually read what the (World Heritage) Convention says? The Stonehenge Alliance has already done so and the CBA and others – notably ICOMOS UK, have indicated that they are very troubled about how building a short tunnel can be reconciled with our Convention commitments.

And we can’t leave January behind without mentioning the awfulness that was the ‘Nazi DiggersTV series.

February

For those that may not be aware of what actually happens as part of an archaeological investigation, we began a short series outlining the various processes involved. We continued our ‘Neolithic M1‘ series this month, describing the northern end of the Icknield Way (and yes, we’re aware there’s still a lot to cover in the series!) The Oswestry Hillfort campaign continued, with another ‘Hillfort Hug’ and associated events in the middle of the month.

A sad event saw the departure from this world of Lord Avebury, Eric Lubbock,  who will be sadly missed. And further southwest in Tintagel, English Heritage were doing their level best to desecrate and monetise a major heritage site that is of great importance to the Cornish.

March

Hansard provided what appeared to be incontrovertible proof of the government’s intentions regarding a tunnel at Stonehenge.

Once again we were delighted to attend the Current Archaeology Live! Conference and provided a comprehensive review of the talks and the awards presented at the conference.

Also in March, we announced the go-live of our sister site, The Stone Rows of Great Britain, which hosts a gazetteer and research papers on these enigmatic monuments and has gone from strength to strength in the last nine months. In time it will, we are sure, become an acknowledged resource for those interested in the subject. Our ‘Inside the Mind of…’ series returned with an entry from Neil Holbrook – if you’ve not checked it out the series has comprised an impressive lineup of subjects over the years we’ve been running it.

In ongoing campaigns, we pointed out how both the National Trust and Shropshire Council know they’re on the wrong side of right, and continued to point out inconsistencies in the Government’s White Paper when talking about World Heritage Sites.

April

In further campaigning, we related a Tale of Two Tunnels and questioned whether there was any scope for ICOMOS to be ‘got at‘ by the UK government.

And we haven’t forgotten our detectorist ‘friends’. As part of our weekly reminder of the continual robbing out of the archaeological resource, we re-iterated our own ‘Finding a Hoard‘ guidelines.

Another sad loss occurred this month for the world of archaeology, with the passing of Professor Charles Thomas, probably best known for his tireless work in Cornwall’s archaeological landscape, and as a co-founder of Rescue, the British Archaeological Trust.

Come back tomorrow as we continue our look back at 2016 in the second part of our annual review! And as always, feel free to explore our archives via the link on the left hand menu.

by Alan Simkins

“Can Detectorists be Archaeologists?” You’d think the answer would be a simple “Yes, assuming they adopt the habits and ethics of professional archaeologists“. After all, every year thousands of people do exactly that, getting involved in the many community digs organised around the country by archaeologists and local societies.

However, given that in the past some of my colleagues have been intimidated and threatened by some in the metal detecting community (to the point that police have been involved on more than one occasion), it was with some trepidation that I attended this year’s Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) conference on the above theme earlier this week at the Museum of London (MoL). As it happened, I needn’t have worried as the conference was very much preaching to the converted as far as the audience was concerned. And despite our stance here on the Heritage Journal, I tried to approach the event with an open mind, being neither a detectorist nor qualified archaeologist.

As the start time approached, I estimated that the Weston Theatre was about half full, so around 100 or people present with a good mix of ages but fewer people than I would have expected. Roy Stephenson from the MoL opened the day with the statement “Detectorists are de facto, archaeologists”, which set the tone for most of the day.

Michael Lewis from the PAS then outlined the work being done to kick off similar recording schemes in Flanders, the Netherlands and Denmark in order to combine datasets, and an interesting slide showed examples of similar finds from the four areas.

northseafindsproject

The other morning sessions were, as expected, full of praise for the work that recording detectorists do, with specific examples from a couple of detectorists as to the lengths they go to in order to meticulously record findspots and analyse the resulting data:

Felicity Winkley told us about her survey of Detectorists, and how she accompanied a dozen or so into the field for extended interviews, looking at their motivations and relationships to their local landscapes. Local knowledge was a major factor in deciding where to detect, and much was made of a comparison between detectorist’s research methods with Archaeological `desk-based’ research techniques, including gridding a potential site to ensure full coverage. Interestingly but unsurprisingly, of those interviewed only a third admitted to actually recording their finds with the PAS.

Dr Phil Harding (no, not that one!) then related his 25 years of detecting in Leicestershire, resulting in over 2000 finds. Due to the volume of his backlog, which the FLO could not cope with, he decided to become a self-recorder, and attended a photography course to improve his records. He then explained how finds scatter analysis could indicate the growth of a settlement, but despite his research and analysis many questions remain unanswered.

Dave Haldenby highlighted his collaborative work with archaeologists which has led to several published articles, once again based upon accurate findspot recording at Cottam B in Yorkshire, a site which traversed the Middle Saxon and Viking periods.

And finally before lunch, Lindsey Bedford described her path from detectorist to archaeologist which led to a degree from Bristol University and told us about her work with the Berkshire Archaeology Research Group (BARG).

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The afternoon session opened with Faye Minter from Suffolk saying how working with detectorists using a (systematic) survey technique at Rendlesham produced results. An effort of some 174 man days detecting over a few years over 4 years, resulted in each detectorist finding an average of 3 recordable items per day.

From over 100,000 finds in total on the site, only around 4000 were pre-1650 metallic artefacts. In total, 27% of the finds at Rendlesham were Anglo-Saxon, compared with just 5% across Suffolk as a whole (I can’t help wondering if this is due to under-reporting elsewhere). We were then told about a site at Exning, where use of detectors could potentially have helped identify Anglo-Saxon graves which were otherwise only found accidentally during trenching, having not been spotted on the geophysics results.

As a result of these findings, Suffolk have now amended their requirements in archaeological briefs, specifying that only experienced/known/published detectorists should be used when surveying sites for development.

This point was raised again by Carl Chapness, who admitted that commercial units often only have access to the cheapest detectors, and very little training or experience in their use, mainly due to being commercially driven. Which lead to him raising a counter-question for the conference: “should archaeologists be detectorists?” There was some discussion of night-hawking and the lengths which commercial units sometimes have to go to in order to protect a site under investigation, and Carl suggested that cross-fertilisation of skills and knowledge between detectorists and archaeologists can only be a good thing.

whatcanbedone

detectorists-archaeologists

Samantha Rowe then explained her work looking at the archaeology of the plough zone – examining lead bullets from civil war sites and comparing the erosion against the land use, concluding that over cultivation can exacerbate erosion of metallic objects (a real NSS moment there!)

John Maloney from the NCMD then spoke on the ‘Future of Archaeology and Metal Detecting’

I have to say he came over as an unpleasantly smug Trump-like bully – someone who is used to getting his own way and seeing no possible reason for that status quo to change. He started his talk by disparaging the efforts of the likes of David Gill and Paul Barford to debate some of the issues behind artefact collecting, and implied that figures used by critics of the hobby (such as those used by the Artefact Erosion Counter) have no substance in fact (as we know, the counter is based upon figures supplied by the NCMD, CBA et al). I suspect he came away from the conference very pleased with the cap-doffing shown to the metal detecting fraternity during the talks throughout the day. Very much a ‘you couldn’t do it without us’ attitude which was not pleasant to see. When questioned, he declined to tell the conference how many members the NCMD has, but someone in the audience proffered a figure of 11000 members. John said there had been no analysis done regarding ‘active’ members, but that it was thought there was a degree of ‘churn’ in the figures as people tended to buy detectors, join the NCMD, then get disenchanted when they don’t find anything, and fail to renew.

Thankfully, Mike Heyworth from the CBA, speaking on the same subject brought some common sense to the debate, saying that in the end a metal detector is just a tool that used in the right hands can be a boon to archaeology (as some of the talks highlighted). However, if the person using it has the wrong motives, or lacks the necessary archaeological skills and knowledge then no good can come of its use. “People using a detector as a tool to study the past in a responsible manner are archaeologists”

He is very interested in pushing for a redefinition of ‘treasure’, and a potential system of abatement of rewards to pay for conservation and preservation of finds, with additional penalties if the finds have not been uncovered in a responsible manner (I’m guessing Lenborough would have qualified for such an abatement). Sadly such a change would be dependent upon an overdue review of the Treasure Act, which the DCMS are dragging their heels over. However, the much vaunted ‘Code of Practice for Responsible Metal Detecting’ is undergoing review for a second edition. This will very much be a case of ‘evolution rather than revolution’.

So what did I make of the day overall? As I said at the start, it was very much preaching to the converted – everyone there had a vested interest in building bridges between the two camps. Sadly, those who could learn most from the day were the very people who would not attend – the ‘Barry Thugwits’ and first-time detectorists of this world.

I would have liked to have seen some of the talks recorded, and made available to metal detectorist clubs so that the message of how the two sides can and should work together can be more widely spread.

Next year’s conference will be held in York, and will cover the subject of ‘Treasure’ (in all its forms, apparently).


Overall impressions:
I left the conference with the same thought that I had before I arrived (and indeed the conference strengthened my feelings): Of course detectorists can be archaeologists, providing they do it for public benefit and in accordance with archaeological methods and morals and they don’t pocket the stuff for themselves. Set against the selfless benefits which thousands of amateur archaeologists quietly deliver in exactly that way, cheerleading for artefact hunting looks bizarre, to put it mildly. PAS could have saved their money and breath, cancelled the conference and announced a replacement one titled: “Hurrah for amateur archaeologists!”

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Middle Ridgeway by Eric Jones and Patrick Dillon accompanied by twenty superb paintings by Anna Dillon, published by Wessex Books, September 8, 2016: £16.95

middle-ridgeway

A sense of heightened anticipation can accompany the opening of any book for the first time, but all the more so when Anna Dillon’s magnificent cover illustration projects the reader into the very past and present rhythms of the Middle Ridgeway.  This book has then a great deal of promise to live up to. Suitably primed the reader will discover the content within is not unlike a magnificent pie: the subject is fondly handled, revered and obscure characters encountered, and a much loved natural world imported to one’s fireside. As they journey over an ‘ecological island’ from Avebury to White Horse Hill and onward to the Goring Gap, the authors carefully guide their readers back and forth across the vast expanse of time and cultural experiences, the unsurpassed illustrations of this chalk landscape by Anna Dillon regularly injecting a joyous spirit and a want to be there. Buy this book and you will never part with it no matter how many times you move or have a clear out, you will cherish it far too much to let it go.

poster

 An exhibition of Anna Dillon’s paintings accompany the launch of this book, they are on view at the White Horse Bookshop, Marlborough, until 30 September.

You can order the book direct here.

We wrote a piece a few months ago about the heavy-handed management and ‘brandalism’ occurring in the name of ‘visitor engagement’ at Tintagel in Cornwall. Now, following recent archaeological excavations at the site, the BBC web site is proclaiming ‘The royal residence of 6th Century rulers is believed to have been discovered at the legendary birthplace of King Arthur.’

So, a known cliff castle site has uncovered evidence that it was used as a castle. Oh, and a medieval storyteller used the location as the setting for a story about the birth of a  mythical figure. Knock me sideways! Is there nothing English Heritage/Historic England (which name do we use these days?) won’t do to increase the cash flow at what is undoubtedly already one of Cornwall’s major cultural attractions? At what cost to the integrity of the site?

TintagelStatue

Thankfully, we’re not the only people thinking along those lines. Dr Tehmina Goskar, a consultant curator and heritage interpreter with over 16 years experience (we featured her partner Thomas in an Inside the Mind article a few years ago)  visited the Tintagel area earlier this year. Her critique of the experience makes for some interesting reading and raises some very pertinent points.

The key issues … are apposite not just to the situation at Tintagel but more widely concern methods of interpretation of Cornish history, medieval history, and the ways in which sites with multiple protective designations are treated by heritage agencies.

It’s a long piece, but for those of the TL;DR generation, there is a useful 10-point summary of the main points included at the start. We heartily recommend that anyone with any interest in site interpretation, Cornwall or tourism in general read the piece, and take home some of the lessons learned.

Dr Sandy Gerrard’s ongoing series of posts concerning stone row alignments, and their associated landscape tricks and treats have been generally well received here on the Heritage Journal.

StoneRowsLogo

Such has been the reaction that a decision was made to give his articles and associated research a more permanent, focused home. To this end we are delighted to announce the creation of a sister site for the Journal, and new web resource: ‘The Stone Rows of Great Britain‘ which goes live today.

The site includes a gazetteer of known and accepted prehistoric stone rows, along with a list of those rows whose antiquity or veracity is in doubt. Many of the gazetteer entries show not just basic information such as location, characteristics and so on, but many are accompanied by links to other web resources, photographs, and each region can be investigated via an interactive map.

The ‘Research’ area of the site will be of interest to many people, and many of Dr Gerrard’s articles which have appeared on the Heritage Journal to date, and more, are included here.

There will still be a great deal of information to be added as further research sheds light on possible uses of the enigmatic monuments, so please pay ‘The Stone Rows of Great Britain‘ a visit, and leave us your comments.

We conclude our look at Current Archaeology magazine’s recent annual ‘CALive!’ conference at Senate House in London, with a review of the final sessions on Saturday.

CALive

After lunch, there were just two sessions left of this year’s conference, and it had gone all too quickly. The next session was entitled ‘Experiments in Archaeology’ and was presented by Karly Hilts, Deputy Editor of Current Archaeology magazine.

Ryan Watts from Butser Ancient Farm was first up, talking about ‘Past, Present, Future: 40 Years of Experimental Archaeology’, and gave us a quick run down of Butser’s 42 year history. Initially set up by Peter Reynolds to aid research in archaeological interpretation of earthworks and other constructions, the first Open Day was held in 1974, and was so successful that the entire site had to move to a new, larger location. As funding for experimental projects can be scarce, Butser worked to become self sustaining, largely through an education program which now sees around 30,000 schoolchildren pass through its gates each year. Visiting groups from schools, universities, U3A, WI etc all help to fund the research, which is as much about destruction as it is construction. The way in which buildings deteriorate and collapse over time can be extremely informative. The original prehistoric scope of the project has now extended to include construction of a Roman villa, and a new Saxon Hall was completed just the day before the conference. This joins the existing Neolithic houses, based upon excavated building footprints from Durrington and elsewhere. Education and Research remain the main principles behind the site, and public visitors are welcome during the summer months.

Pieta Greaves and Eleanor Blakelock then gave an update on their latest findings in ‘Secrets of the Anglo-Saxon Goldsmith: Conservation and Scientific Research of the Staffordshire Hoard’. Pieta showed us some stunning pictures of some of the more than 4000 pieces representing a few hundred objects. The use of many of the fragments remains a mystery. “Reconstructing a helmet from its foils is like reconstructing a house when you only have its wallpaper”. Eleanor then gave an in-depth insight into the scientific analysis of the gold in the objects. Anglo-Saxon goldsmiths added copper and silver to their gold to create alloys – to change its working properties and colour, and these alloys corrode at different rates. Copper in particular will be lost in the ground, but surface analysis showed that much silver was lost too – up to 40% in some cases, where 1% is more usual in a burial environment. Looking below this surface loss, the core composition of some pieces showed a similar depletion, so obviously not something that happened in the ground. Investigation into the ways that silver can be removed from gold alloys in this way led to just 4 possible techiniques for enrichment and depletion. It seems that the A-S goldsmiths were more highly skilled that previously thought, using the different alloy combinations not for the cost factor, but to produce contrast in an artistic manner.

Zena Kamash was next on the agenda, with a talk entitled ‘Digesting the Romans’. no, this wasn’t about Roman menus, but about 3D printing and a project to help people experience museum exhibitions in different ways – through poetry and through 3D models!  The 3D process involves first laser-scanning an object to build up a digital model which can then be ‘printed’ using a variety of materials. This prompted a question of whether 3D models belong in museum display cases at all – there are several famous replica objects in museums already, but the team recently 3D printed the Roman cockerel found in a child grave at Cirencester – the ‘Corinium Cockerel‘  with mixed results – the final model is quite ‘sticky’ and malleable in places, and brittle in others. 3D printing is not yet a perfect process – dirt on a laser scan resulted in several imperfect models being produced., and several of these aborted attempts were available during the following teabreak for people to handle for themselves. To go along with the images of the cockerel and the models, a poem composed by poet Dan Simpson was played to the audience, and the talk finished with another of Dan’s poems, ‘The Museum of Replicas‘, which caused some amusement, and took us into the final tea break and a last chance to spend money on books in the Archaeology Fair.

coriniumcockerel

Following the teabreak, Julian Richards, Neil Faulkner and Ray Baldry briefly took to the stage to announce that the impromptu collection for the Sedgeford project, to allow for isotope analysis of some of the remains to determine if they were local, settlers or invaders had raised (including Gift Aid) a sum approaching £1000, which was duly presented to Ray Baldy who expressed his extreme gratitude to everyone who had contributed. A very successful crowdfunding effort, and we look forward to reading about the results of the analysis in a future issue of Current Archaeology magazine!

crowdfunding

The last session of the day finally arrived, and David Breeze told us about ‘Hadrian’s Wall – 40 years of research on the Roman frontier’. David began with a quick rundown of early research of Hadrian’s Wall, through the 1800s and early 1900’s. The first chronology for the wall was proposed in 1909, and refined twenty years later.  These early chronologies suggested that the wall was rebuilt in it’s entirety several times during its active life. Showing several illustrations of the wall, David questioned why it was so ‘tidy’, and why was there a walkway on top when other frontiers walls didn’t have this feature? Looking at modern frontiers and barriers, the Berlin Wall, the West Bank etc., these are all much simpler in construction and designed to control people, not soldiers. Documented evidence suggests people could only move within the  Roman frontier zones with permits. Identification of obstacle pits between the wall and ditch (also seen at the Antonine Wall) brings into question whether a wall walk was needed at all, and looking at the wall’s place in the landscape, it’s not always best placed for visibility or defence. Looking at the forts along the wall, many are earlier than the wall itself which was then built in front of the older forts, with new forts incorporated into it. Discovery of large civil settlements on either side of the wall also suggest that the wall was not a definitive barrier, leaving – as always – many questions still to investigate and answer.

Ending the conference, Andrew Selkirk, Editor in Chief regaled us with a brief summary of the previous two days in his own inimitable style. Then it was all over, for another year. However, for the Romanists there will be another 3-day conference in September at Durham University, following up on David’s talk and focusing upon ‘Hadrian’s Wall: 40 Years of Frontier Research’.

But I’ll hope to be back again at Senate House next year, for another enthralling conference, CALive! 2017

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